Typical migration consists of definite movements that are repeated regularly year after year, and it is to these that the term is generally restricted. It is desirable, however, if only for purposes of comparison, that some account be taken of the movements of some other birds, which, while not typical, do possess some of the characteristics of true migration. Data on this subject are being collected through bird banding.
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There are several species that are customarily grouped under the heading “permanent residents,” the term implying that these birds do not travel but remain throughout the year in one locality. Among these are the cardinal, the tufted titmouse, the wrentit, the Carolina wren, the house finch, the bobwhite, the California quail, and the ruffed grouse. Each species may be present constantly throughout the year, although in the northern part of the range there is probably a slight withdrawal of the breeding birds in winter. The individuals to be seen at that season, therefore, may not always be the same as those observed during the summer. It is certain, however, that these species do not regularly perform extensive journeys.
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